Effectiveness of a nurse‐led smartphone‐based self‐management programme for people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial.

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    • Abstract:
      Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse‐led smartphone‐based self‐management programme (NSSMP) on improving self‐efficacy, promoting diabetes self‐care, increasing health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) and decreasing HbA1c, acute complications and unplanned medical consultation for people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes compared with a nurse‐led diabetic service (NDS). Design A two‐arm randomized controlled trial with repeated measures was conducted. Methods: Participants were recruited from June 2018 to September 2020. Eligible participants were assigned to either the intervention or control group randomly. Participants assigned to intervention group received the 6‐month NSSMP, while those in the control group received existing NDS provided by the study hospital. Outcomes were measured at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months from baseline. Results: A total of 114 participants were recruited. There were no significant interactions between group and time for all the outcomes except for blood glucose testing activities (F = 4.742, p =.015). Both groups had reduced HbA1c over 6 months. The intervention group had a lower HbA1c than the control group at follow‐ups, but the differences were not statistically significant. None of the participants had acute diabetes complications at follow‐up. Similarly, the differences in the number of unplanned medical consultation at 6‐month follow‐up between two groups were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The NSSMP is as effective as existing NDS provided by the study hospital in improving most of the outcomes. NSSMP can liberate valuable time for nurses to provide care to critically ill patients and supports healthcare resource constraints in the current COVID‐19 pandemic. Impact The existing diabetes service is labour intensive as nurses are required to deliver education, follow‐up telephone calls to trace blood sugar monitoring and provide therapeutic consultations and necessary referrals. The outbreak of COVID‐19 pandemic has added further strain on the overworked professionals. NSSMP provides an alternative programme that is just as effective, to reduce nurses' workload by delegating them back to the individuals through self‐management strategies. This enables nurses to increase contact time with patients, and individuals to take onus of their disease through increased self‐efficacy, facilitated by technology. Clinical Trial: This study is registered under clinical registration number NCT03088475. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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