Proportion and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy by stage in less-developed rural areas of Hunan province of China: A multi-site cross-sectional study.

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    • Abstract:
      Aims: To investigate the proportion and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) by stages in less-developed rural areas in Hunan Province of China.Background: DR is common among people with diabetes but not well recognized in less-developed rural areas. There is insufficient evidence on the risk factors of DR by stages, making it challenging to develop targeted prevention and intervention programs for DR in primary care settings.Methods: A multi-site cross-sectional survey was conducted among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from four less-developed counties in Hunan Province of China. All participants underwent the screening of DR via digital fundus photography and completed self-reported questionnaires on their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, diabetes self-efficacy, diabetes self-care behaviors, social support, family function, and health service accessibility. The multinomial logistic regression models were employed to explore the risk factors of DR by stage, which were selected based on the socio-ecological model, literature, and clinical experience.Results: A total of 196 participants were included in this study with an average age of 57.43 ± 10.26. 59.6% (117/196) of the participants were identified as DR, including 37.2% (73/196) non-proliferative DR and 22.4% (44/196) proliferative DR. Compared to the non-DR group, the risk factors of non-proliferative DR and proliferative DR were diabetes duration (OR: 1.10, 95 CI%: 1.04-1.17; OR: 1.14, 95 CI% 1.06-1.22) and self-monitoring of blood glucose (OR: 1.09, 95 CI% 1.01-1.17; OR: 1.11, 95 CI%: 1.02-1.20); the protective factors of non-proliferative DR was accessible complication prevention and management education (OR: 0.37, 95 CI% 0.14-0.94) while the protective factors of proliferative DR were physical activities (OR: 0.89, 95 CI%: 0.80-0.98). Compared to the non-proliferative DR group, the protective factors of proliferative DR were physical activities (OR: 0.89, 95 CI% 0.02-0.89) and family function (OR: 0.84, 95 CI%: 0.04-0.84).Conclusion: DR was prevalent among people with T2DM in less-developed rural areas, indicating the need of strengthening DR screening. Risk factors of DR varied by stage while sharing some common factors. Future DR prevention and intervention programs may benefit from improving these factors to reduce the risk of DR by stage. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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