Unbalanced intakes of sodium and potassium among Tunisian adults: A cross‐sectional study

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    • Publication Information:
      Wiley, 2021.
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    • Abstract:
      Abstract The prevention and management of hypertension are untimely associated with a lowering of sodium intake. The present study aimed to evaluate the sodium and potassium intake levels of Tunisian population through measurement of 24‐hr urinary sodium excretions. A randomly, multistage, cross‐sectional study was conducted in an urban region (Bizerte) in Tunisia during 2015. The target population involved adults aged from 25 to 64 years. Sodium, potassium, and creatinine concentrations were determined in each urine sample using indirect potentiometric method. From the 420 selected participants, only 194 gave urine samples complying completeness criteria. A multivariate regression model was used to assess the variables related to sodium and potassium excretion. The daily mean excretion of sodium and potassium was 138.3 ± 46.5 mmol/d (corresponding to 8.1 ± 2.7 g/d of salt intake) and 61.0 ± 22.7 mmol/d, respectively. More than 87.1% of the participants (89.8% for men vs. 84.9% for women; p = .31) exceeded the WHO recommendation of 5 g/d. The upper limit of 10 g salt intake per day was still exceeded by 26.3%. After adjusted analysis, sex (for women, coef = −1.6; (95% CI: −2.4, −0.7)), level of instruction (≥30 kg/m2, coef = +1.1; (95% IC: 0.4–2.0)), and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2, coef = +1.1; (95% CI: 0.1, 2.0)) were associated with the sodium excretion. High sodium intake and inadequate potassium intake were found among participants. This consumption profile complies with the diet westernization context occurring in Tunisia. The initiated strategy focused on the downward of sodium in bread (the main source of salt intake) seems to be promising.
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      electronic resource
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