The adoption of a food system approach is vital for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) in achieving the 2030 Agenda. The objective of this paper is to present a case-study from Oman, where a roadmap of context-specific entry points within the food system was proposed, with the overarching aim of fostering healthier diets in the population. A four-staged process was adopted: (1) selection of potential target food groups; (2) assessment of self-sufficiency and sustainability considerations related to the target foods; (3) characterization of challenges, opportunities and potential interventions related to the target food groups and (4) identification of specific entry points within the three elements of the food system (food supply chain; food environment; and consumer behavior). Data collection was based on a review of pertinent literature as well as a participatory approach involving policy makers and stakeholders. Findings showed that fruit, vegetables, fish and foods that are high in fat, sugar and salt are priority targets for intervention. Specific entry points within the food system were identified and a realistic roadmap of activities was outlined. Findings and recommendations presented in this paper may facilitate policy convergence efforts in Oman and serve as a case-study for other EMR countries.