Background: The epidemiology and prevalence of the Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection represent a recommended priority by global health agencies. An in-depth revision to update the status of this infection in countries including those of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO) of the World Health Organization is hence required. Methods: Ninety-seven studies evaluating the HTLV-1 infection in low- and high-risk populations in EMRO countries were retrieved from the international electronic databases and were used to assess the epidemiological status of the infection in these countries. Results: Most epidemiologic reports were published from Iran, with more than 50% of Iranian prisoners and around 4% of healthy individuals reported to have the infection. In Egypt, a considerable prevalence of the virus spans around 1.11% of blood donors. Foci of HTLV-1 infection are also present in some countries and require a careful epidemiological evaluation. In the other EMRO countries, a lower prevalence that does not exceed 1% was reported. Conclusion: The epidemiology and prevalence of HTLV-1 in the EMRO countries require a tight revision and update. Published studies reveal a scarce distribution of the virus in the African countries of EMRO, while a lower prevalence is denoted in the Asian countries of EMRO, except in Iran, where the prevalence is high.