Background Mortality is one of the indicators of community health and reflects the social, economic and environmental status of the residence of people. In this regard, countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) have many problems. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the factors affecting on mortality in the region. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in the 22 EMR countries. Required data on mortality were collected from WHO online database and Weather, Geneva, Switzerland. The data were analyzed by ArcGIS 10.6.1 software, graphic statistical methods, SPSS software version 23.0, descriptive statistical tests, ANOVA, and regression correlation coefficient. Results The results showed that in the 22 EMR countries, mortality in children under five, neonatal mortality rate, mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution, mortality rate attributed to exposure to unsafe WASH services and mortality rate attributed to unintentional poisoning were 52 per 1000 live births, 26.6 per 1000 live births, 58.8 per 100,000 population, 13.1 per 100,000 population and 1.4 per 100,000 population, respectively. The results showed that the countries of Somalia, Yemen, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sudan, and Djibouti were in a very poor situation and there was an inequality in health in the countries of the region. Conclusion Based on the results, the main factors affecting mortality rate included: 1) Average precipitation, 2) Latitude, 3) Above sea level, 4) Food safety, and 5) Births attended by skilled health personnel.