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Purpose: This study, a theory-based interventional study, aims to promote self-care behaviors regarding sexual and reproductive health in adolescents (female) in Karaj, Iran. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted on 90 female students of the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. For selecting subjects, the researchers went to two girls' dormitories on working days and tried to observe the proportion of students with different fields. Initially, 200 eligible female students were identified in the dormitories of Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Based on the sample size estimation, 100 research units were divided into two groups of receiving counseling (intervention group) and not receiving counseling (control group) by four-digit block randomization. Sexual and reproductive health self-care questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection before, after and one month after intervention. Data were analyzed by using X[superscript 2] and ANOVA tests using SPSS (16). Findings: Both groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic characteristics before the intervention. The results of the study indicated that after education, sexual and reproductive knowledge (p < 0.001), self-care of sexual health (p < 0.001), self-care of menstrual and genital health (p < 0.001) increased significantly. But, regarding parents' communications (p = 0.11), conversation barriers with parents (p = 0.83), interaction with (p = 0.79) and the perceptions of sexual risk behaviors relationships (p = 0.61) differences are not significant. Research limitations/implications: Failure of parents to participate in this study and the implementation of this study only on the female sex were main limitations of the present study. Practical implications: Theory-based education can improve sexual and reproductive health in adolescents' girls. Originality/value: All Authors declare the manuscript entitled "Sexual and reproductive health self-care: a theory-based intervention" is original work of the author. All data, tables, figures, etc. used in the manuscript are prepared originally by authors; otherwise, the sources are cited and reprint permission is attached.