Efficacy of a Self-Regulation-Based Electronic and Mobile Health Intervention Targeting an Active Lifestyle in Adults Having Type 2 Diabetes and in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older: Two Randomized Controlled Trials.

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    • Abstract:
      Background: Adopting an active lifestyle plays a key role in the prevention and management of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Web-based interventions are able to alter health behaviors and show stronger effects when they are informed by a behavior change theory. MyPlan 2.0 is a fully automated electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) intervention targeting physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA).Objective: This study aimed to test the short-term effect of MyPlan 2.0 in altering levels of PA and SB and in changing personal determinants of behavior in adults with T2DM and in adults aged ≥50 years.Methods: The study comprised two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with an identical design. RCT 1 was conducted with adults with T2DM. RCT 2 was performed in adults aged ≥50 years. Data were collected via face-to-face assessments. The participants decided either to increase their level of PA or to decrease their level of SB. The participants were randomly allocated with a 2:1 ratio to the intervention group or the waiting-list control group. They were not blinded for their group allocation. The participants in the intervention group were instructed to go through MyPlan 2.0, comprising 5 sessions with an interval of 1 week between each session. The primary outcomes were objectively measured and self-reported PA (ie, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, total PA, number of steps, and domain-specific [eg, transport-related] PA) and SB (ie, sitting time, number of breaks from sitting time, and length of sitting bouts). Secondary outcomes were self-reported behavioral determinants for PA and SB (eg, self-efficacy). Separate linear mixed models were performed to analyze the effects of MyPlan 2.0 in the two samples.Results: In RCT 1 (n=54), the PA intervention group showed, in contrast to the control group, a decrease in self-reported time spent sitting (P=.09) and an increase in accelerometer-measured moderate (P=.05) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (P=.049). The SB intervention group displayed an increase in accelerometer-assessed breaks from sedentary time in comparison with the control group (P=.005). A total of 14 participants of RCT 1 dropped out. In RCT 2 (n=63), the PA intervention group showed an increase for self-reported total PA in comparison with the control group (P=.003). Furthermore, in contrast to the control group, the SB intervention group decreased their self-reported time spent sitting (P=.08) and increased their accelerometer-assessed moderate (P=.06) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (P=.07). A total of 8 participants of RCT 2 dropped out.Conclusions: For both the samples, the HAPA-based eHealth and mHealth intervention, MyPlan 2.0, was able to improve only some of the primary outcomes.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03291171; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03291171. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03799146; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03799146.International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): RR2-10.2196/12413. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]